Glossary

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  • Antibodies

    Antibodies are part of the immune system. They are created to fight off things (antigens) that can hurt the body, like a virus or bacteria.

  • Antigens

    An antigen is something your body doesn’t recognize (such as a virus or bacteria) that goes into the body. The body then creates antibodies to get rid of the antigen.

  • Autoantibodies

    Autoantibodies are a group of antibodies that accidentally end up attacking and hurting parts of the body. In type 1 diabetes, autoantibodies attack the cells that make insulin in the pancreas.

  • Autoimmune disorder

    An autoimmune disorder or disease is when the body's immune system makes a mistake and starts to attack its own tissues.

  • Basal secretion (basal insulin)

    Basal secretion is a little bit of insulin that is always in the blood. People with type 1 diabetes have to take a type of insulin that copies basal secretion; that is basal insulin.

  • Beta cells

    Beta cells are cells that make insulin in a part of the pancreas.

  • Blood glucose level

    Blood glucose level is how much sugar is in your blood at different times of day. This level is very important for people with diabetes, which is why they have to check their blood sugar many times of the day.

  • Blood pressure 

    Blood pressure is how hard the heart is working to move blood through the body. People with diabetes have a higher chance of having high blood pressure. Blood pressure should be checked at every doctor's visit and should be 130/80 mm Hg or lower.

  • Body mass index (BMI)-

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is a way of telling if a person is overweight, underweight, or obese. It uses a person's height and weight to see how much body fat someone has.

  • Bolus secretion (bolus insulin)

    Bolus secretion is when the pancreas creates insulin after you eat to break down the carbohydrates in your food. People with type 1 diabetes have to take a type of insulin that copies bolus secretion.

  • Carbohydrate counting

    Carbohydrates increase blood sugar levels. Carbohydrate counting helps people with diabetes keep track of how many carbs they eat to help them choose how much insulin to take to control their blood sugar.

  • Carbohydrates

    Carbohydrates are found in different foods, such as rice, bread and startchy vegetables. The body breaks down carbohydrates to get sugar, which then gives energy to the body.

  • Cholesterol

    Cholesterol is a type of fat that is created in the liver or intestine, but can also be found in foods you eat such as milk ,cheese and eggs. Cholesterol can only be found in animal foods.

  • Clinical trials

    Clinical trials are studies that are done to test how safe and well new medicines, medical supplies or techniques work. All medicines in the U.S. go through three levels of clinical trials before people can use them.

  • Diabetes educator

    Diabetes educator is a healthcare person who can teach a person with diabetes how to treat their diabetes. Diabetes educators can be doctors, nurses, dietitians, mental health clinicians, or fitness clinicians, and some can be Certified Diabetes Educators (CDEs).

  • Diabetes mellitus

    Diabetes mellitus is the full name for diabetes, but most people call it diabetes.

  • Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a very serious sickness. It happens when there is no insulin to help the body use sugar for energy so the body turns to fat for energy. When the body breaks down fat, ketones can build up in the blood, which makes the blood acidic. DKA can cause coma or death if it's not treated right away.

  • Dialysis

    Sometimes people with diabetes get kidney disease. Dialysis is a type of treatment that keeps blood clean in the bodies of people who's kidneys don’t work right. If the kidneys don’t work right, they cant keep blood clean which can cause many health problems.

  • Diet

    Dieting is an important part of controlling diabetes. Eat a healthy diet that is low in salt, sugar, and saturated fat and high in fruits and vegetables.

  • Dietitians

    Dietitians are specialist who can give advice on eating healthy and how different foods can make it easier or harder to control diabetes.

  • Endocrine system

    The endocrine system makes hormones that control how some parts of the body work, like growth and metabolism. Diabetes is an endocrine disease because insulin is a hormone. In type 1 diabetes, the body doesn't make enough insulin. With type 2 diabetes, the body makes too little insulin or doesn't use it the right way.

  • Fasting blood glucose

    Fasting blood glucose (sugar) is one way to tell if someone has diabetes. It measures the blood sugar lever after not eating overnight.

  • Fat

    The body uses fat for energy. The body can also get energy from sugar and protein.

  • Gestational diabetes

    Gestational diabetes is diabetes that happens during pregnancy when women have high blood sugar levels. The symptoms usually go away after delivery, but women with this diabetes may have type 2 diabetes later in life.

  • Glucagon

    Glucose is a sugar that the body uses for energy. The body has to have enough insulin to use the sugar for energy.

  • Glucose

    Glucose is a sugar that the body uses for energy. The body has to have enough insulin to use the sugar for energy.

  • Hemoglobin A1c

    The hemoglobin A1c is a test used to show the blood sugar level over 90 days. It helps you and your doctor see how you're controlling your blood sugar.

  • Hyperglycemia

    Hyperglycemia is when you have too much sugar in your blood.

  • Hypertension

    Hypertension is high blood pressure which is 140/90 mm Hg or more. Many people with diabetes have high blood pressure. It increases the chance of heart attack, stroke and kidney problems.

  • Hypoglycemia

    Hypoglycemia is when you have too little sugar in your blood.

  • Insulin

    Insulin is a hormone that helps the body use sugar. Without insulin, blood sugar can't get to where it needs to go. People with type 1 diabetes don't have this hormone; people with type 2 diabetes don't have insulin or their body can't use it.

  • Insulin pen

    Insulin pen is a type of tool to use to give insulin to yourself. It's a called an insulin pen because it looks like a writing pen.

  • Insulin pump

    An insulin pump is a type of tool that some people with diabetes use to give themselves insulin. It usually uses batteries and has a plastic tube and needle that goes under the skin to give insulin.

  • Insulin reaction  (hypoglycemia )

    Insulin reaction is when you have low sugar levels from either too much insulin, too much activity, or too little food.

  • Insulin resistance

    Insulin resistance is when cells have a hard time using insulin in the body.

  • Ketones

    When the body starts to break down fat in order to get energy, ketones are a byproduct. When too many of those build up in the blood, it makes the blood acidic and can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis.

  • Lifestyle changes

    Lifestyle changes are changes made to eating habits and how much you move and exercise to control blood sugar levels.

  • Lipohyertrophy

    Lipohyertrophy happens when you have injected yourself in the same area too many times. This can make the skin swell and become tough. When an area is used too much, the body may not take in insulin very well.

  • Macrovascular complications

    Macrovascular complications Is when major blood vessels get damaged because of not controlling blood suagr levels. This can lead to a heart attack or stroke.

  • Microvascular complications

    Microvascular complications happens when tiny blood vessels are damaged in the microvascular system due to poor control of blood sugar levels. These complications can cause kidney, nerve, and eye problems.

  • Nephropathy

    Nephropathy is a serious kidney disease that can happen to people who have had diabetes for a long time, especially if they don't take care of their diabetes.

  • Oral glucose tolerance test

    This test is one way to tell if someone has diabetes. It measures blood sugar levels five times in three hours after having a special drink with a lot of sugar.

  • Pancreas

    The pancreas is part of the endocrine system behind the stomach.The hormone insulin is made in the pancreas.

  • Pre-diabetes

    Pre-diabetes, also known as glucose intolerance, is when you have high blood sugar levels, but it is not high enough to diagnose you as diabetic. Pre-diabetes is an early sign of type 2 diabetes.

  • Protein

    The body uses protein for energy (it also uses carbohydrates and fat for energy). You can find protein in meat and beans, dairy and fish.

  • Retinopathy

    Retinopathy is damage to the part of the eye that sees light. People who have had diabetes for a long time and don't control it can get retinopathy.

  • Saturated fat

    Saturated fat is a type of fat in food. Saturated fat can raise cholesterol levels.

  • Target range

    Blood sugar levels need to stay at a certain number or range. Before eating, the target range is 70 to 130 mg/dL. One to two hours after eating, the target range is below 180 mg/dL. People with diabetes can control blood sugar with diet, exercise and insulin.

  • Trans fats

    Trans fat is a type of fat in processed foods such as cookies, fast foods and some types of margarines. Trans fats can raise cholesterol levels and should be eaten in small amounts.

  • Type 1 diabetes

    Type 1 diabetes is when your body can't make insulin. People usually get this type of diabetes before the age of 40. It is treated with a healthy diet, insulin and regular exercise.

  • Type 2 diabetes

    Type 2 diabetes happens when the body doesn't make enough insulin or doesn't use the insulin it makes as it should. People usually get this type of diabetes after the age of 40. It can be treated in different ways, such as by diet and exercise alone; by diet, exercise and medicine, or by diet, exercise and insulin.

  • Unsaturated fat (both polyunsaturated and monounsaturated)

    Unsaturated fats are fats that mostly come from vegetables. Polyunsaturated fats can help lower cholesterol leves. Monounsaturated fats also help lower cholesterol levels and can also raise HDL (good cholesterol) levels.

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